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The less widespread Beaux-Arts style - a mixture of Neo-Renaissance and Neo-Baroque architecture - was championed in particular by Richard Morris Hunt (1827-95) and Cass Gilbert (1859-1934).Meantime, the first real skyscrapers were being designed by the Chicago School of architecture (c.1880-1910), led by William Le Baron Jenney (1832-1907).Also, Robert Henri (1865-1929) and William James Glackens (1870-1938), both members of The Eight, produced a number of excellent Impressionist-style canvases.As the American art world expanded during the 19th century, so did its organizations.The French plein-air Barbizon School was also influential, while a style known as Tonalism grew up in the 1880s and 90s.Important 19th century American landscape and plein-air painters include: Frederic Edwin Church (1826-1900) A pupil of Cole, and America's greatest ever romantic landscape painter, Church criss-crossed the continent, painting tropical forests, waterfalls, volcanoes and icebergs.The great European art movements of Impressionism and Post Impressionism had some followers in the United States, but realism remained the dominant style.Winslow Homer (1836-1910) One of America's most famous artists, Homer had a talent for depicting nature in a way that reflected the American pioneering spirit.
One effect of this increased European influence was the gradual emergence of a school of abstract art: initially Cubist-oriented, later geometric and colourist in nature, it provided an obvious contrast with native representationalism.Greek Revival came first, led largely by Jefferson, Latrobe and Bulfinch.Neo-Gothic architectural design was exemplified by the work of Richard Upjohn (1802-78) and James Renwick (1818-95), while Romanesque-style designs were pursued by Henry Hobson Richardson (1838-86).From this point onwards, European art - and, more importantly, European artists - begin to have a much greater impact on America. (1) the rise of American commercial power - which in turn led to the emergence of powerful American art collectors and philanthropists, who purchased European art for museums in the United States.
The growth of American cities was, incidentally, made them ideal customers for - and developers of - new styles of European architecture like Art Nouveau (flourished 1890-1914) and Art Deco (1920s, 1930s).
This is a short 20 step guide to the history of American art, including painting, sculpture, architecture and contemporary art forms, from Colonial times on.